**Individual (one engineer)**Member $945.00 | Non-Member $1195.00

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**INSTRUCTORS: **

Finley A. Charney, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE F.SEI

Justin D. Marshall, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE

**Purpose and Background**

This course focuses on analytical modeling of three‐dimensional building structures. Emphasis is placed on modeling the full structural system load path, including lateral load resisting elements, gravity‐only elements, diaphragms, and the soil foundation‐structure interface. Methods for including second order and dynamic effects are included. Powerful approaches for increasing the performance efficiency of structural systems utilizing a sensitivity analysis strategy are presented. All of the topics presented in the course are demonstrated by use of a multi‐story building modeled in steel and in reinforced concrete. Although the course uses the commercial software products SAP 2000 and ETABS (from Computers and Structures, Inc.), it is not anticipated that students in the course will be required to have licenses for the software. However, it is possible that no‐cost short‐term licenses can be acquired for the duration of the course.

**Benefits and Learning Outcomes**

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

- Describe the fundamental concepts of structural analysis in terms of equilibrium, compatibility, and stress‐strain (constitutive) relationships
- Compare and contrast the stiffness method and the finite element method of analysis
- List and describe the advantages of top‐down 3‐D modeling of structures
- Identify the sources of deformation in the structural elements and explain how the elements should be modeled
- Explain the importance of and apply the correct method of modeling of diaphragms
- Explain the importance of and apply the correct method of modeling the soil‐foundation‐structure interface (SFSI)
- Apply several different calculation methods for validating the accuracy of the computed results
- Apply multiple modeling approaches to the analysis of a steel and a concrete building
- Describe methods to include second‐order effects in structural analysis
- Increase the efficiency of a building structural system through numerical sensitivity analyses
- Describe the steps and required modeling features for constructing a model and performing a dynamic analysis of a building structure
- Apply advanced modeling tools for the analysis of buildings under static and dynamic loads

**Assessment of Learning Outcomes**

Achievement of the learning outcomes by attendees will be assessed through (3) exams.

**Who Should Attend?**

- Structural and construction engineers who analyze, design, and erect building structures
- Structural and construction engineers working in consulting firms
- Structural and construction engineers working in industry
- Structural and construction engineers working for government agencies
- Structural and construction engineers working in the U.S. Corps of Engineers
- Building code officials
- Educators

**How to Earn your CEUs/PDHs**

This course is worth 2.4 CEUs/24 PDHs. To receive your certificate of completion, you will need to complete (3) exams and receive a passing score of 70% or higher.

**How do I convert CEUs to PDHs?**

1.0 CEU = 10 PDHs [Example: 0.1 CEU = 1 PDH]

**Course Outline**

**Week 1: Primitive Elements**

Course Introduction & Week Introduction

Structural Analysis: A Brief History

Modeling Objectives

Learning Exercise - Ingredients in Structural Engineering

Equilibrium, Compatibility and Constitutive Relationships

Det erminate and Indeterminate Structural Analysis

Computerized Structural Analysis

Learning Exercise - Displacement Method, Force Method and Computerized Structural Analysis

Conclusion

**Week 2: Overview of the finite element method (frame, shell, and membrane elements)**

Introduction

Units, Global and Local Coordinate Systems and Boundary Conditions

Units, Global and Local Coordinate Systems

Truss and Frame Elements

Membrane, Plate and Shell Elements

Learning Exercise - Mix and Match Element Types

Nodal, Element and Structure Output

Analysis Output in Structural Design

Learning Exercise - Mix and Match Output

Conclusion

**Week 3: 3-D computer modeling of building structures**

Introduction

Underlying Modeling Assumptions Part 1

Underlying Modeling Assumptions Part 2

Motivation for 3D modeling

Global and Local Coordinate Systems

Learning Exercise

Model Components: Soil, Foundation, Structure (Detailed concepts provided in Week 6)

Top-Down Modeling Concepts

Essential Features of the Structure Model

for Static and Dynamic Analysis

Learning Exercise

Conclusion

**Week 4: Boundary conditions, constraints conditions, modeling of structural elements and connections**

Introduction

Degrees of Freedom and Boundary Restraints

Constraint Conditions

Sources of Elastic Deformation

Learning Exercise

Accounting for Cracking in Concrete Structures and Composite Action in Steel Structures

Accounting for Beam-Column Joint Deformations

Load Patterns, Load Cases, and Load Combinations

Learning Exercise

Conclusion

Exam: Weeks 1-4

**Week 5: Modeling the diaphragms (flexible, semi-rigid, rigid)**

Introduction

Basic Concepts of Floor and Roof Diaphragms

Basic Diaphragm Modeling Concepts:

Flexible, Semirigid, and Rigid

Modeling Diaphragms as Rigid

Learning Exercise

Modeling Diaphragms as Semirigid using Shell and Membrane Elements

Modeling Flexible Diaphragms

Analysis of a Structure with Different Diaphragms Models and Comparison of Results

Learning Exercise

Conclusion

**Week 6: Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction**

Introduction

What is Soil-Structure Interaction?

Effect of Soil-Structure Interaction on Building Structures

Inertial SSI

Learning Exercise - SSI Scenarios

Kinematic Interactions

Methods of SSI in Structural Analysis

Example Application of SSI in Structural Analysis

Learning Exercise - Case Study 1

Conclusion

**Week 7: Approaches for validation of computed response**

Introduction

Importance of Validating Computed Response

Approximate Structural Analysis of Indeterminate Beams and Trusses

Approximate Structural Analysis of Frames

Learning Exercise

Start Simple Move to Complex

Upper Bound Lower Bound Modeling

Application of Checking a Complex Model with Approximate Calculations

Learning Exercise

Conclusion

**Week 8: Detailed case study: Analysis of multi-story buildings under loads**

Introduction

Description of the Structure and Developing a Modeling Plan

Modeling of the Gravity System and the Foundation

Modeling the Lateral System and the Diaphragms

Learning Exercise

Applying Loads

Running the Analysis and Verifying the Output

Impact of Diaphragm Modeling and Soil Structure Interaction

Learning Exercise

Conclusion

Exam: Weeks 4-8

**Week 9: Second order effects and buckling analysis**

Introduction

Overview of Stability Issues

2D and 3D P-Delta Effects

Modeling Structures to Include P-Delta Effects

Learning Exercise

Conforming with requirements within ACI 318

Conforming with Requirements in AISC 360

Other Elastic Stability Considerations

Learning Exercise

Conclusion

**Week 10: Sensitivity analysis and optimization using virtual work**

Introduction

Review of Principle of Virtual Work

Sources of Elastic Deformation

Sensitivity Indices and Optimization

Learning Exercise

Damage Control in Structures

Drift Damage Indices and Drift Damage Limits

Examples

Learning Exercise

Conclusion

**Week 11: Structural Dynamics **

Introduction

Single Degree of Freedom Structural Dynamics

Multi Degree of Freedom Structural Dynamics

Mass and Damping

Learning Exercise

Modal Analysis

Linear Dynamic Analysis I

Linear Dynamic Analysis II

Learning Exercise

Conclusion

**Week 12: Topics related to seismic and wind load effects**

Introduction

Introduction to Modeling for Wind and Seismic Loads

Limit States and Performance Criteria

Modeling System Mass and Damping

Learning Exercise

Overview of Ductility Demands for Wind and Seismic

Special Modeling Requirements for Wind Loads

Special Modeling Requirements for Seismic Loads

Learning Exercise - Case Study 2

Conclusion

Exam: Weeks 9-12